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Hungarian Grammar - Indefinite And Definite Pronouns And Verbs

In this grammar section I will explain the indefinite and definite personal pronouns as well as show examples of indefinite and definite pronoun and verb usage (indefinite and definite sentences).

Before I begin to show you examples though you first need to know about the Noun, Pronoun and Personal Pronoun; if you do not know about them already of course.

What Is A Noun?

A noun is a word that identifies a person (their name, title, gender or class), an animal, a place (i.e. a landmark, building, here or there), a thing (i.e. furniture, words or objects) or ideas (i.e. a theory or rule).

What Is A Pronoun?

A pronoun is a word or phrase that may be substituted for a noun or noun phrase. A pronoun can basically do everything that a noun can do - It can act as a subject, direct object, indirect object, object of the preposition and much more. A pronoun can also replace certain adverbs, adjectives and other pronouns.

Without pronouns we would have to keep on repeating nouns, making speech and writing repetitive. Example without pronouns: John said do this, John said do that and John said other things too. With pronouns: John said do this, HE also said do that and other things too. Examples of the pronoun are: He, She, They, It, We and Who.

What Is A Personal Pronoun?

A personal pronoun is just a type of pronoun - There are many types of pronoun in a language such as personal pronoun, indefinite pronoun and possessive pronoun and in the Hungarian language the main personal pronouns are I, YOU, HE/SHE, WE, YOU (plural) and THEY; although they are not used that much simply because of the way the Hungarian language suffixes a word (or sentence) to include or refer to a personal pronoun. Either way, it is better to know the Hungarian personal pronouns because they are used to clarify who is being spoken to or about for example.

Below is a list of personal pronouns with their indefinite and definite forms.....

Person Pronouns Indefinate Verb
(Back - Short Vowel)
Indefinate Verb
(Front - Long Vowel)
Definate Verb
(Back - Short Vowel)
Definate Verb
(Front - Long Vowel)
I Én Ain ok ek om em
You Te Teh ol/sz el/sz od ed
He/She/It Ő Ur ja i
We Mi Mih unk ünk juk jük
You (Plural) Ti Tih tok tek játok itek
They Ők Urk nak nek ják ik

.....and here are examples of the verb Ért (Understand) using their indefinite and definite forms.

Person Pronouns Indefinate Verb (Front - Long) Definate Verb (Front - Long) Meaning
I Én Ain Értek (Ear-Tek) Értem (Ear-Tem) I Understand
You Te Teh Értesz (Ear-Tess) Érted (Ear-Ted) You Understand
He/She/It Ő Ur Érti (Ear-Tea) He/She/It Understands
We Mi Mih Értünk (Ear-Toonk) Értjük (Ear-Chook) We Understand
You (Plural) Ti Tih Értetek (Ear-Teh-Tek) Értitek (Ear-Tea-Tek) You Understand
They Ők Urk Értenek (Ear-Teh-Neck) Értik (Ear-Tick) They Understand

As an example of the above: Ért is the verb UNDERSTAND and because the É of Ért is a front, long, vowel, it needs the front indefinite suffix EK added to it when expressing the sentence (indefinite sentence) I UNDERSTAND (ÉRTEK). You do not need to say ÉN ÉRTEK because the EK suffix already states the personal pronoun I.

An example of using Értek (indefinite) would be I UNDERSTAND COMPUTERS (ÉRTEK A SZÁMÍTÓGÉPHEZ) and an example of using Értem (definite) would be I DO NOT UNDERSTAND WHAT YOU ARE SAYING (NEM ÉRTEM MIT MONDASZ).

Another example would be FUT - Fut is the verb RUN and because the U of Fut is a back, short, vowel, it needs the back indefinite suffix OK added to it when expressing the sentence (indefinite sentence) I RUN (FUTOK). You do not need to say ÉN FUTOK because the OK suffix already states the personal pronoun I.

An example of using Futok (indefinite) would be I RUN EVERYDAY (MINDEN NOP FUTOK) and an example of using Futom (definite) would be I RUN THE MARATHON (LEFUTOM A MARATON).

Another example would be OLVAS - Olvas is the verb READ and because the O and A of Olvas are both back, short, vowels, Olvas needs the back definite suffix OM added to it when expressing the sentence (definite sentence) I AM READING (OLVASOM). You do not need to say ÉN OLVASOM because the OM suffix already states the personal pronoun I.

An example of using Olvasok (indefinite) would be I AM READING A BOOK (OLVASOK EGY KÖNYVET) and an example of using Olvasom (definite) would be I AM READING THE NEWSPAPER (OLVASOM AZ ÚJSÁGOT).

What Is Indefinite?

Indefinite Pronoun means a pronoun that does not refer to any person, amount, or thing in particular. Examples: Akárki (Anyone/Whoever), Akármi (Whatever), Valami (Something), Valaki (Somebody/Someone) and Némely (Some).

An Indefinite Sentence is when the sentence does not mention a direct object or thing. Examples: I Am Reading A Book (Olvasok Egy Könyvet). I Want To Eat Something (Akarok Enni Valamit). In this case those sentences are both indefinite - Although A BOOK was mentioned, it was a book (any book, not a specific book). And the latter sentence mentioned SOMETHING, but not anything specifically.

What Is Definite?

Definite Pronoun means a pronoun that does refer to a person, amount, or thing in particular. You normally need a definite article such as THE (AZ).

A Definite Sentence is when the sentence does mention a direct object or specific thing. Examples: I Am Reading The Newspaper (Olvasom Az Újságot). I Want To Eat A Piece Of The Pizza (Akarok Enni Egy Selet Pizzát). In this case those sentences are both definite - THE NEWSPAPER (a specific newspaper) was mentioned. And THE PIZZA (a specific pizza) with A PIECE (a specific amount) was mentioned.


Vowel Harmony
Common Cases
Index
BASIC HUNGARIAN
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